Uk Astronomers have discovered a supermassive black hole pointed to earth that is 33 billion times larger than the sun. According to Durham University scientists, this is one of the largest black holes ever discovered.
The Royal Astronomical Society published the news about this supermassive black hole in their journal Monthly Notices.
The discovery comes just a few days after an international team of scientists discovered that the supermassive black hole known as PBC J2333.9-2343 at the center of the galaxy headed in the direction of the earth.
Several huge galaxies, including the Milky Way, are thought to have such supermassive black holes at their centers.
According to Dr. James Nightingale of Durham University’s Department of Physics, the supermassive black hole pointing toward the earth is approximately 33 billion times the mass of our sun. It is one of the biggest ever observed and is an instance of how far a black hole can theoretically grow.
The supermassive black hole was discovered by astronomers while making observations of a galaxy farther from the earth than the one centered around it. The background object was magnified by the foreground galaxy’s gravity.
Gravity causes light to bend around enormously huge objects, producing the gravitational lensing phenomenon. Gravitational lensing commonly assists astronomers in enhancing the magnification of objects that are too far away to be effectively visible with human-made telescopes.
The team of astronomers determined the magnitude of the black hole by using several Hubble Space Telescopes. The scientists were able to stimulate how much light bends around the foreground galaxy that contains the black hole using advanced computer models.
The origin of such rare and elusive black holes is unclear. According to experts, black holes might have formed when the universe was young or when the galaxies merged.
Supermassive Black Hole: What Is It? How Is It Formed?
The largest type of black hole is what is called a supermassive black hole. It is occasionally known shortly as SMBH or SBH. A supermassive black hole will have a mass that is millions to billions of times greater than that of the sun.
A black hole is a category of celestial objects that have undergone gravitational collapse and left behind spheroidal regions of space from which nothing can escape. According to data, the center of every giant galaxy is a supermassive black hole.
Black holes with a mass of more than 100,000 solar masses are considered supermassive; some of them have masses of several billion M.
Supermassive black holes can be distinguished from lower-mass categories by their physical characteristics. The first is that supermassive black holes have much less tidal forces close to the event horizon.
Another characteristic of the supermassive black hole is that its average density within its event horizon can be less than the density of water, which is somewhat surprising.
According to some studies, black holes with luminous accretors can normally reach natural masses of up to roughly 50 billion M. Black holes with masses greater than 5 billion M are sometimes called ultra-massive black holes.
So the recently observed black hole with around 33 billion mass can be categorized as an ultra-massive black hole. The formation of supermassive black holes is still a topic under study.
Supermassive Black Holes: Studies On Its Formation
Black holes can expand by taking in more matter and combining it with other black holes. There are various theories on how the progenitors of supermassive black holes formed.
If there is enough mass nearby, the black hole seed could accrete to become an intermediate-mass black hole and possibly an SMBH if the accretion rate continues, regardless of the exact formation route.
According to the reports, supermassive black holes were first discovered by Maarten Schmidt’s analysis of the radio source 3C 273 in 1963. This was first believed to be a star, but the wavelength proved ambiguous.
It was found to be redshifted hydrogen emission lines, which suggested the object was traveling away from the earth. According to the Hubble law, supermassive black holes found initially generated the same amount of energy as hundreds of galaxies.
By 1964, four similar sources had been discovered. In 1964, Edwin E. Salpeter and Yakov Zeldovich proposed that the characteristics of celestial objects can be explained by matter falling onto a huge compact object. To equal the output of these objects, an object’s mass would need to be close to 108 M.
After that, it was suggested in 1973 by Martin Ryle, Malcolm Longair, and Peter Scheuer that the compact core nucleus might have provided the initial energy for these relativistic jets.
The huge velocity dispersion of the stars in the nuclear area of elliptical galaxies, as studied in 1970 by Arthur M. Wolfe and Geoffrey Burbidge explained by a large mass concentration at the nucleus is considered larger than could be explained by ordinary stars.
in 1971, Donald Lyden-Bell and Martin Raees postulated that a large black hole would be present in the Milky Way galaxy’s center.
The 1990 debut of the Hubble Space Telescope gave researchers the resolution they needed to conduct more accurate investigations of galactic nuclei.
The Event Horizon Telescope collaboration published the first black hole image at horizon scale on April 10, 2019, showing it at the galaxy messier 87s center.
To better detect these signs in the first black hole image, scientists proposed in March 2020 that more subrings should be constructed in the photo ring.
Among all these studies regarding supermassive black holes, the recently founded black hole with a mass of around 33 billion, is the biggest ever found.